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Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic that can be administered both intravenously and orally. It was developed initially for treating typhoid. However, due to the increased resistance of Salmonella typhi, this drug is hardly used in treat of this disease. It is now used in the treatment of severe bacterial infections. It could be administered alone or alongside other antibiotics. This drug is known to have lots of severe side effects. As a result of this, Chloramphenicol is only used when other medicines will not be suitable. This medication is a prescription drug and can be gotten in three forms. They are a suspension, a capsule, and a powder for solution.
Although Chloramphenicol is now majorly used in treating cases of bacterial infection, it also has essential uses in veterinary medicine. At the moment, this drug is the significant medication used in the treatment of Chlamydia disease in koalas. Also, according to recent research, this medicine could be applied in the prevention of the destruction of frogs as a result of fungal infections.
How Does Chloramphenicol Inhibit Bacterial Growth?
Chloramphenicol fights bacteria by stopping them from making the vital proteins which they need to stay alive. It does this by resisting the actions of the bacterial ribosome, which causes peptidyl transferase. This leads to an inhibition of the formation of peptide bonds. The ability of Chloramphenicol to interfere with substrate binding is its strategy for stopping bacterial growth.
Who Is Qualified to Take Chloramphenicol?
Chloramphenicol can be made use of by both adults and children that have eye infections (conjunctivitis) or ear infections. When it is made use of by adults in the treatment of eye infections, it can be bought over the counter. However, it can only be made use of by children if it has been prescribed by a doctor. Chloramphenicol can only be used in the treatment of ear infections if it has been prescribed by a doctor. On infrequent occasions, this drug is administered intravenously.
Who Should not Make Use of Chloramphenicol?
Chloramphenicol is a drug that can be used by both adults and children. This, notwithstanding, certain people should not make use of this medicine. Below is a list of those who should not take Chloramphenicol:
- Nursing mothers
- Individuals on the Lurasidone medication
- Pregnant women
How Should Chloramphenicol Be Taken?
There is no defined way to make use of Chloramphenicol. The dose of this drug that should be taken is dependent on the reason for using it. It also depends on if you are making use of ear drops, eye drops, or eye ointment.
If you are making use of eye drops, then you should put a drop of this medicine in the infected eye at a two-hour interval while you are awake. This should be done for two days. After the first two days, you should put the drop in your eyes at a four-hour interval or as prescribed by your professional healthcare provider. To apply eye drops, slightly pull your lower eyelid down and tilt our head back very slightly. Position the bottle directly above your eyes and let a single drop fall in between your eyes and lower eyelid. After this is done, leave your eyes closed for a few minutes.
Keep making use of the eye drop until symptoms improve. After symptoms improve, you can make use of them for two more days. You can only make use of the eye drops two days after symptoms improve if your doctor says so. This is because if you continue with treatment, the eyes might become too sensitive or might get infected.
For individuals that are making use of eye ointment, Chloramphenicol should be used every three hours for about four days or as the doctor advises.
If you are making use of Chloramphenicol ear drops, ensure you put 2 to 3 drops in the affected ear about two to three times daily. When using ear drops, slightly tilt your head and position the tube containing the ear drop close to the infected ear. Squeeze the drops into your ear and then lie down for about ten minutes for the drops to find their way deep into your ear. When you are done, put a little piece of cotton wool in your ears until you feel entirely comfortable.
To get the best out of this medication, always ensure that you sanitize your hands, both before and after making use of this drug. This will prevent the infection from getting passed to the uninfected eyes or ear. Also, ensure that the medicine cap is removed just before you make use of the medicine. That’s not all, ensure that you cover the drug only after using it and make sure that the nozzle of the medication does not come in contact with any part of your body.
What Happens if You Forget a Dose?
If you forget to take a dose, then, you should take it as soon as you remember. However, if you remember when it is almost time for a new prescription, then the missed dosage should be overlooked.
If you accidentally put more drops of either Chloramphenicol eye drop, eye ointment, or ear drops, there is no cause to worry, as it won’t amount to anything serious. However, if you or a child swallows this drug, seek medical attention immediately.
What Are Side Effects of Chloramphenicol?
In very much the same way that other drugs cause side effects, Chloramphenicol also does the same. The adverse effects that are associated with this drug range from mild to very severe. Below are some of the side effects of Chloramphenicol:
- Bone marrow suppression
- Inflammation of the optic nerve
- Inflamed mouth
- Flammation of the optic nerve
NOTE: Chloramphenicol should be kept out of the reach of children and should be made use of strictly when other safer drugs cannot be made use of. As always, consult with your doctor before taking any drug or medication.